醫藥之神的祭司印和闐(Imhotep)相關壁畫-康翁波(Kom Ombo)雙神廟。康翁波(Kom Ombo)神廟位於亞斯文北方20多公里處，地處尼羅河畔，是一座同時祭奉老鷹神荷魯斯以及鱷魚神索貝克(Sobek)的雙神廟。康翁波的最大特色就在於這邊留有石頭榫接痕跡、被奉為埃及建築之神與醫藥之神的祭司印和闐(Imhotep)相關壁畫，還有鱷魚木乃伊等等。
The Lost Mummy of Imhotep
發表於: 星期五 六月 18, 2004 4:17 pm 文章主題: 印和闐
Of the non-royal population of Egypt, probably one man is known better then all others. So successful was Imhotep (Imhetep, Greek Imouthes) that he is one of the world's most famous ancients, and his name, if not his true identity, has been made even more famous by various mummy movies. Today, the world is probably much more familiar with his name then that of his principal king, Djoser. Imhotep, whose name means "the one that comes in peace". Existed as a mythological figure in the minds of most scholars until the end of the nineteenth century when he was established as a real historical person.
He was the world's first named architect who built Egypt's first pyramid, is often recognized as the world's first doctor, a priest,. scribe, sage, poet, astrologer, and a vizier and chief minister, though this role is unclear, to Djoser (reigned 2630~2611 BC), the second king of Egypt's third dynasty. He may have lived under as many as four kings. An inscription on one of that kings statues gives us Imhotep's titles as the "chancellor of the king of lower Egypt", the "first one under the king", the "administrator of the great mansion", the "hereditary Noble", the "high priest of Heliopolis", the "chief sculptor", and finally the "chief carpenter".
Of the details of his life, very little has survived though numerous statues and statuettes of him have been found. Some show him as an ordinary man who is dressed in plain attire. Others show him as a sage who is seated on a chair with a roll of papyrus on his knees or under his arm. Later, his statuettes show him with a god like beard, standing, and carrying the ankh and a scepter.
Imhotep may have been born in Ankhtow? a suburb of Memphis early in Egyptian history. However, other classical writers suggested that he was from the village of Gebelein, south of ancient Thebes. His father might have been an architect named Kanofer. His mother could have been Khreduonkh, who probably belonged to the province of Mendes, and he may have had a wife named Ronfrenofert but none of this is by any means certain. As a commoner at birth, he rose through the ranks quickly due to his genius, natural talents and dedication.
As the High Priest of Heliopolis, he would have been one of the chief priest of Lower (northern) Egypt. Even though Egypt's capital may have been located at Memphis, it is likely during this period that Heliopolis was recognized as the religious capital of Egypt.
As a builder, Imhotep is the first master architects who we know by name. He is not only credited as the first pyramid architect, who built Djoser's Step Pyramid complex at Saqqara, but he may have had a hand in the building of Sekhemkhet's unfinished pyramid, and also possibly with the establishment of the Edfu Temple, but that is not certain. The Step Pyramid remains today one of the most brilliant architecture wonders of the ancient world and is recognized as the first monumental stone structure.
Imhotep's best known writings were medical text. As a physician, Imhotep is believed to have been the author of the Edwin Smith Papyrus in which more than 90 anatomical terms and 48 injuries are described. He may have also founded a school of medicine in Memphis, a part of his cult center possibly known as "Asklepion", which remained famous for two thousand years. All of this occurred some 2,200 years before the Western Father of Medicine Hippocrates was born.
Sir William Osler tells us that Imhotep was the: "..first figure of a physician to stand out clearly from the mists of antiquity." Imhotep diagnosed and treated over 200 diseases, 15 diseases of the abdomen, 11 of the bladder, 10 of the rectum, 29 of the eyes, and 18 of the skin, hair, nails and tongue. Imhotep treated tuberculosis, gallstones, appendicitis, gout and arthritis. He also performed surgery and practiced some dentistry. Imhotep extracted medicine from plants. He also knew the position and function of the vital organs and circulation of the blood system. The Encyclopedia Britannica says, "The evidence afforded by Egyptian and Greek texts support the view that Imhotep's reputation was very respected in early times. His prestige increased with the lapse of centuries and his temples in Greek times were the centers of medical teachings."
Along with medicine, he was also a patron of architects, knowledge and scribes. James Henry Breasted says of Imhotep: "In priestly wisdom, in magic, in the formulation of wise proverbs; in medicine and architecture; this remarkable figure of Zoser's reign left so notable a reputation that his name was never forgotten. He was the patron spirit of the later scribes, to whom they regularly poured out a libation from the water-jug of their writing outfit before beginning their work.
Imhotep is one example of the "personality cult" of Kemet, whereby a learned sage or otherwise especially venerated person could be deified after death and become a special intercessor for the living, much as the saints of Roman Catholicism. About 100 years after his death, he was elevated as a medical demigod. In about 525, around 2,000 years after his death, he was elevated to a full god, and replaced Nefertum in the great triad at Memphis. In the Turin Canon, he was known as the "son of Ptah". Imhotep was, together with Amenhotep, the only mortal Egyptians that ever reached the position of full gods. He was also associated with Thoth, the god of wisdom, writing and learning, and with the Ibises, which was also associated with Thoth.
We are told that his main centers of worship were in the Ptolemaic temple to Hathor atf Dier el-Medina and at Karnak in Thebes, where he was worshipped in conjunction with Amenhotep-Son-of-Hapu, a sanctuary on the upper terrace of the temple at Deir el-Bahari, at Philae where a chapel of Imhotep stands immediately in front of the eastern pylon of the temple of Isis and of course, at Memphis in Lower (northern) Egypt, where a temple was erected to him near the Serapeum. At saqqara, we are told that people bought offerings to his cult center, including mummified Ibises and sometimes, clay models of diseased limbs and organs in the hope of being healed.
He was later even worshipped by the early Christians as one with Christ. The early Christians, it will be recalled, adapted to their use those pagan forms and persons whose influence through the ages had woven itself so powerfully into tradition that they could not omit them.
He was worshiped even in Greece where he was identified with their god of medicine, Aslepius. . He was honored by the Romans and the emperors Claudius and Tiberius had inscriptions praising Imhotep placed on the walls of their Egyptian temples. He even managed to find a place in Arab traditions, especially at Saqqara where his tomb is thought to be located.
Imhotep lived to a great age, apparently dying in the reign of King Huni, the last of the dynasty. His burial place has not been found but it has been speculated that it may indeed be at Saqqara, possibly in an unattested mastaba 3518.
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發表於: 星期日 六月 06, 2004 1:21 pm 文章主題: 埃及古王國時期藝術(附加圖片)
埃及EGYPT 古王國時期2800 - 2200 BCE 古王國時期是一個金字塔被修造、法老王鞏固他們作為神的形象以神聖力量統治現在統一的上下埃及王國的時期。不同於美索不達米亞的國王，法老王們勝過一籌- 他們視自己作為神在地球上的化身而統治。
THE OLD KINGDOM 2800 - 2200 BCE
The Old Kingdom is the period when the pyramids were built and when the Pharaohs consolidated both their image as gods with the divine right to rule and their rule of the now unified kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt. Unlike the kings of Mesopotamia the Pharaohs went one better - they saw themselves as gods incarnated on Earth to rule.
Medun的埃及古墓 Great Mastaba at Medun 埃及古墓是一種在3000 BCE之前所使用以岩石或泥磚做成的早期墳塋形式。Mastaba意味著"階地"，與結構的形狀有關。他們有一個由垂直軸與地面上的紀念碑連接的地下埋葬間。在紀念碑的前室有一個擺逝者的雕像的位置。 在金字塔位法老王而修造之後，古墓仍然為皇室成員們使用以及盡可能的想要被埋葬在法老王金字塔附近的埃及王公貴族們。在金字塔複合體裏可能有上百個屬於某個特定法老的家人和家僕的古墓。
Mastabas are an early form of rock or mudbrick tomb used before 3000 BCE. Mastaba
means "bench" referring to the shape of the structure. They have a burial chamber underground linked to the above ground monument by a vertical shaft. In the ante-room of the monument there was a niche for a statue of the deceased. After pyramids were being built for the Pharaoh mastabas were still used by members of the royal family and the royal court all of whom wanted to buried as close to the pyramid of the Pharaoh as possible. In the pyramid complexes there may be hundreds of mastabas that belong to the family and retainers of that particular pharaoh.
卓瑟王的階梯式金字塔 204’高，第三王朝，2600 BCE The Step Pyramid of Zoser 204' high, 3rd dynasty, 2600 bc Saqqara 是在埃及歷史中埃及大部分時期的首都---孟菲斯(開羅南部)的墓地。有15 座皇家金字塔在Saqqara。古王國的統治者非常努力保存他們的靈魂和他們的記憶。當他們的記憶和靈魂被保存下來，和他們埋葬在一起的珍貴財寶可能沒有辦法透過他們的大紀念碑被長期保護著。卓瑟王的金字塔，就像所有的金字塔一樣，是涵括了神廟和小墳塋的大複合體之一部分。卓瑟王的金字塔複合體包括一個” Heb Sed”庭院。” Heb Sed”是慶祝法老統治的節慶。有關於這個特殊庭院，有趣的是，庭院是一個由石塊形塑其城牆的建築複合體，帳篷式的節慶建築。這些都可以在上面照片的前景部分看到。
Saqqara was the necropolis of Memphis (south of Cairo) the Capitol throughout much of Egyptian history. There are 15 royal pyramids at Saqqara.
Old Kingdom rulers went to great lengths to preserve their souls and their memory. While their memories and perhaps souls are preserved the rich treasures buried with tem were not protected for long by their large monuments. Zoser's pyramid, like all pyramids, was part of a large complex which included temples and smaller tombs. Zoser's pyramid complex includes a Heb Sed Court. Heb Sed was a festival held to celebrate the Pharaoh's rule. What's interesting about this particular court is that the court is a complex of buildings built of stone modeled after fabric, tent type festival buildings. These are visible in the foreground of the photo above.
Zoser's pyramid was the first masonry structure of its size and the first pyramid built, although, it was a bit tentative, which is seen in its form. The design, that started out as a very large mastaba, went through six revisions in the building process. It is solid and didn't actually serve as a tomb as did later pyramids It was designed by the architect Imhotep, who was later deified. There are several other examples of "experimental" or "developmental" pyramids throughout Egypt, including the Bent Pyramid at Dashur and the Step Pyramid of Sneferu
Sneferu的階梯式金字塔 ，2600 B.C.E Step Pyramid of Sneferu 2600 B.C.E 由於不夠健全的石工技術，它的外框滑了下來，在基座的附近留下殘骸的斜坡。 -它和大古墓（The Great Mastaba）一樣是複合體結構。
Because of un-sound masonry techniques the casing slid off leaving the slope of debris around its base. - It's in the same complex as the Great Mastaba (above)
吉薩金字塔群（GIZA）(上方照片由左至右：Menkure、Khafre、Khufu金字塔) Pyramids of Giza (Menkure, Khafre, Khufu left to right in the photo above) 金字塔示意圖(Cheops/Khufu) Pyramid Diagram(Cheops/Khufu) 在埃及境內已經有47座已知的法老王金字塔。金字塔的作用不僅是作為修造它們的法老們的墳墓，並且有刺激埃及經濟和集結這個剛被統一的大王國的能量。
There are 47 pyramids of Pharaohs known throughout Egypt. Not only did the pyramids serve as tombs for the Pharaohs who built them, they also served to stimulate the Egyptian economy and to focus the energies of a large kingdom that was just getting used to being unified.
太陽神雷（Re）的兒子 -雷在地上的化身 -金字塔是太陽神雷的靈物(擁有魔力的物體) -它代表如同金字塔錐形的石塊，被稱為”benben” -法老王將他的靈氣保存在巨大的”benben”中 這之間可能有什麼樣的政治或宗教複雜系統分支? 你認為太陽神雷的祭司可能和選擇金字塔作為墳墓有關嗎?
By the 4th Dynasty (Old Kingdom) the transition was made from stepped pyramids to true pyramids. The Pharaohs believed they were the sons of the Sun god Re- the incarnation of Re on earth
- the pyramid is Re's fetish (an object possessing magical power)
- It is represented as pyramidal stone called a benben
- The pharaoh is preserving his spirit in a giant benben! What political or religious ramifications might this have? Do you think the priests of the cult of Re might have had anything to do with the choice of the pyramid as
上圖中的金字塔: Khufu金字塔 (在希臘文是Cheops ) ，2530 BCE; Khafre金字塔(Chephren (希文), Khufu的兒子)，位於日出和日落處的金字塔，2500 BCE ;Menkure 金字塔(Mycerinus（希臘文）)，神聖的金字塔，2460 BCE 金字塔是用石灰石塊建造的，最初在外部有一個平滑、光亮的外罩。Khufu和Khafre金字塔複合體各包括5個裝有皇家小船的小船坑。Khufu和Menkure金字塔則各有3座王后的金字塔。每個金字塔都各有一個山谷寺廟和一個停屍間寺廟，由一條有頂的隄道連接-從十八世紀起被埋沒在新建築之下。Khufu金字塔(在右邊的那一個)是最大的，基地擴及13英畝-與基本方位（東西南北四個基本方位）排列成一線。
Pyramids in the picture above: The Great Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops in Greek) 2530 BCE
Khafre's Pyramid (Chephren (in Greek),Khufu's son), The Pyramid which is the Place of Sunrise and Sunset, c. 2500 BCE The Pyramid of Menkure (Mycerinus in Greek) The Divine Pyramid c. 2460 BCE The pyramids are built of limestone blocks and originally had a smooth, polished casing on the exterior. The pyramid complexes of Khufu and Khafre each included 5 boat pits containing royal boats. Khufu's and Menkure's each had 3 queens pyramids. Each also had a Valley Temple and a Mortuary Temple connected by a covered causeway - now buried beneath new construction since the 18th c. The Pyramid of Khufu (the one on the right) is the largest, the base covers 13 acres - aligned with the cardinal points
Mastabas at Giza in the complex of Cheops' pyramid (view from the top of the pyramid) Workers worked on the pyramids during the flood season when they couldn't work the fields. The massiveness of the tombs did no good, by the end of the Old Kingdom they had all been pillaged no mummies or artifacts associated with the kings has ever been found
人面獅身像（Sphinx） 砂岩，65’高，第四王朝，3000 BCE 人面獅身像可能是Khafre的塑像，它與Khafre金字塔排列在一起，面向東邊-太陽升起之一方(生命和復活)。它是從存在的砂岩雕刻出來的。人面獅身像一直被埋沒在沙子裡直到19 世紀由一些拿破崙的軍隊和考古學家發現(並且，用加儂砲打掉了它的鼻子!)。現在人面獅身像被公認可能比金字塔還要古老，早於西元前3000年。在1994 年11月在人面獅身像的側邊發現了一個"秘密"入口(即早先未知的)！
Sphinx sandstone, c. 65' high, Dynasty 4, c. 3000 Sphinx is perhaps a portrait of Khafre, it is aligned with Khafre's pyramid and faces east - the rising sun (life and resurrection). It's carved from living sandstone. The sphinx was buried in sand until the 19th century when it was discovered by some of Napoleon's troops and archeologists (who also, it might be added, blew off its nose with a cannon ball!). It is now commonly recognized that the sphinx may be much older than the pyramids, pre-dating 3000 BCE. In November 1994 a "secret" (i.e. previously unknown) entry is found in the side of the sphinx!
古王國時期的雕塑與繪畫 Old Kingdom Sculpture and Painting Khafre ，6.5' 高，閃長岩，2500 BCE 非常正式和剛性-封閉的形式 -是由單塊石料雕刻成的，人物被限制在被雕刻的石塊之範圍內 平靜和尊嚴的感覺幫助創造出永恆力量和生命的感覺。注意浮雕的精緻細節。
Khafre ,6.5' tall diorite 2500 BCE Very formal, and rigid - closed form - monolithic, figure is constrained by the block it is carved from The sense of calm and dignity helps create a sense of eternal strength and life. Note the nice detailing of the relief carving
Menkure 和Khamerernebty ，2525 - 2475 BCE，板岩，4'6 高 Menkure 在吉薩建造了第三座偉大的金字塔。這裡他與他的妻子Khamerernebty面對未來的永恆。他似乎非常堅決剛毅。與Khafre一樣，他非常的正式和剛性。這座雕像，像上面Khafre的雕像，是有意要設置為靠牆的。兩件雕像都是非常正面的。注意有多少石材在Menkure的左腿後幫助支撐他。他看上去是向前跨進一步，但是看看他的臀部.... 你可以把你的重量放在你的左腳並且做這樣的延伸，而使你的臀部繼續隨左腿轉動嗎?試試看！
Menkure and Khamerernebty c. 2525 - 2475 BCE, slate, 4'6 h. Menkure built the third of the great pyramids at Giza. Here he faces the future of eternity with his wife Khamerernebty. He seems very resolute. As with Khafre he is very formal and rigid. The statue, like that one above of Khafre was intended to be set against a wall. Both pieces are very frontal. Note how there is stone left behind Menkure's left leg to help support it. He appears to be taking a step forward but look at his hips.... Can you put your weight on your left foot with it extended like this and keep your hips from rotating with it? Try it!
左:Ka-Aper 右 : Seated Scribe 像Ka-Aper和書記官座像，社會地位比皇室家族低的人們被描繪得更放鬆、生動活潑-更加栩栩如生。Ka-Aper最初是用石灰泥和漆料覆蓋著。他的眼睛是用岩石和水晶作成的-他完全獨立的（沒有支撐物的）。
Ka-Aper 43" h wood c. 2400 Seated Scribe painted limestone Figures such as these of Ka-Aper and the Seated Scribe, people of lower social status than the royal family, are depicted as more relaxed, and lively -> more lifelike. Ka-Aper was originally covered with plaster and painted. His eyes are of rock and crystal - he is completely freestanding
In order for the tomb to provide the most pleasing environment for the ka for
eternity they were typically decorated with painted and carved scenes. The decorations are commonly symbolic and/or religious but also include scenes of daily life such as the painted relief carving of Ti watching his servants hunt hippos. Ti was a court official who was wealthy enough to afford a well decorated tomb.
發表於: 星期日 六月 06, 2004 1:27 pm 文章主題: 網站來源
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